Encoded selfmodifying targets
the Power Desk suite from Mijenix
advanced
Advanced cracking
by Uncle Van, 1 January 1998
(With an add-on by Marigold, 16 Jan 1998)
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Courtesy of Reverser's page of reverse engineering
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As it seems, we have entered the "new deal": we are beginning to produce our own tools (was about time: the whole +HCU 1998 will be centered on some 'our own tools' projects :-)... yet you'll find a lot more inside this VERY GOOD essay by Uncle Van: self-correcting, real code hiding, how to adjust the PE header, Uncle Van's 'precracking', bypassing the WriteProcessMemory and a lot of other goodies... (I love Uncle Van's approach: "there will be really "man against man", I see glorious days coming"... I agree totally! The more the protectionists learn, the more fun it is to crack their 'advanced' protections!)
Work well: you'll have a couple of days work just to understand what Uncle Van is explaining you... and that's the nice part of our trade! To learn! Knowledge is knowledge's reward!
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There is a crack, a crack in everything
That's how the light gets in
Rating
( )Beginner ( )Intermediate (x)Advanced ( )Expert
An understanding of common advanced cracking techniques is a pre-requisite. Don't even try to follow this if you are a beginner (in that case come back later).
Title
Encoded selfmodifying targets - the Power Desk suite from Mijenix
OK, I know it sounds pretty earnest but it hits the point of this essay.
Written by Uncle Van
Intro

Impressum

Well, this is the greatest discussion nowadays, concerning the software protection - Is it possible under such "allmighty" OS like windo$e (but also all other protected mode systems) to write into one's own code in order to protect his product against (banal) patches and unexpirienced cracker?
It's first necessary to know about memory protection, that Intel's x86 line has two general modes - real and protected - and furthermore in protected mode it can operate in 4 security "rings" - ring 0 till ring 3.
Every ring corresponds to an appropriate privilege level - the higher the number the lower the privilege level. This means, that p.e. in ring 0 ALL opcodes are allowed and there is no restriction in the terms of memory access, it's just like in old "real" DOS, you can rampage everything you fancy ;=D.
But as you walk to the higher ring number more and more restrictions appears: several opcodes get disabled, you are not allowed to acces memory regions you not own, IN and OUT instructions are getting "controlled", and at least, you can't even write to your own code segments because it is write protected too. (Here I'm not so sure!)
You can "jump" from a ring with higher privilege to code in rings with lower privilege, but not vice versa.
In the windo$e world applications run of course in the ring 3 mode ;-(, while the main part of the OS itself AND the drivers (Vxd!) operate at ring 0. And as we already know from Reversers page, overwriting the own code is essential for a good protection. The most cool protections BTW were made in DOS real-mode times, some of them are not cracked yet!
The main problem is how could a program overwtite its own code on such OS? At this point I'll qoute +rcg from his First Attempt:http://fravia.org/pro_rcg.htm
".........  VxD. I know this is a big effort, but I'm sure we
will be able to program them in a few months, so we will take
again the control over the system (just like we did in Ms-Dos)."
It must be really a big effort since we didn't hear something new about this ;-) You can read Reverser's essay about VxDs too in order to get a first impression about such a stuff.
I'll show you here how the guys from Mijenix solved this problem.
Tools Required
Debugger (SoftIce)
Hexeditor
Disassembler
ASCII dump importer (our own)
A textEditor which allows block selecting
Brain

Of course, you may choose any other tools you like.

Program History
No history
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Theme:

Power Desk eval v202, to obtain from: http://www.mijenix.com

These are indeed a couple of utilities inluding an OLE container designed for the "power user" ;-) to maintain your desktop tasks etcetera. I'm concentrated on a program named Pdexplo.exe, an advanced explorer. I don't use such kind of stuff but some among you seem to like it (thanks Stefan for the interesting request!).
This a evaluating version and is limited to 30 day period. Then it starts a "grace" period of 10 days or so during that the user is supposed to realize what he is going to loose soon (also by playing sad songs to him!)- a new professional "enslavement" trick; look at Reverser's Enslavement techniques page.
The program creates some keys in the registry where the date of the installation is stored and proofs the current date on the system files (user.dat), you can check this by yourself, there is nothing unconvenient there.
You can easily find the protection code in the memory with SoftIce:

...............
0137:0044656C  8B3D54174500        MOV     EDI,[KERNEL32!GetLocalTime];<==== !
0137:00446572  C605C3A9440055      MOV     BYTE PTR [0044A9C3],55
0137:00446579  C605C7A9440055      MOV     BYTE PTR [0044A9C7],55
0137:00446580  C705C8A94400E8030000MOV     DWORD PTR [0044A9C8],000003E8
0137:0044658A  FFD7                CALL    EDI ;    <========= !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
0137:0044658C  66817C2418CC07      CMP     WORD PTR [ESP+18],07CC
0137:00446593  744E                JZ      004465E3 ;>===================>|
0137:00446595  66817C2418CD07      CMP     WORD PTR [ESP+18],07CD         |
0137:0044659C  7445                JZ      004465E3 ;>===================>|
0137:0044659E  66817C2418CE07      CMP     WORD PTR [ESP+18],07CE         |
0137:004465A5  743C                JZ      004465E3 ;>===================>|
0137:004465A7  6A10                PUSH    10                             |
0137:004465A9  FE0DC4A94400        DEC     BYTE PTR [0044A9C4]            |
0137:004465AF  C605C6A9440009      MOV     BYTE PTR [0044A9C6],09         |
.................
By slightly rejumping it we can start the target regardless of expired dates and periods, but the attempt to locate the checks with hexeditor or Wdasm fails. Disassembling the program we see at the above addresses:
.................
:0044656C 00000000000000000000    BYTE 10 DUP(0)
:00446576 00000000000000000000    BYTE 10 DUP(0)
:00446580 00000000000000000000    BYTE 10 DUP(0)
..............
Really tough, eh?
Which tricks they have used to hide the real code until program start? The right assumption is that this piece of code is somewhere in the data area and is evntl. decoded and "paste" in the right place at run time.
How they do it?
Looking at the imported functions we see some with very meaningfull names like:
...............
KERNEL32.GetCurrentProcess
KERNEL32.GetCurrentProcessId
KERNEL32.OpenProcess
KERNEL32.ReadProcessMemory
KERNEL32.WriteProcessMemory
...............
What you say? These could be the ones!
According to micro$oft manuals a process is a "fundamental" term in their(!) OS and
"..when You start a program from the disk it becames a process."
Aha! And in fact you can do many things with a process - getting its handle, opening it, reading from its memory AND WRITING TO IT, if you have the necessary rights; but when you own a process you have all rights as well!
So we BPX ReadProcessMemory in SoftIce and load the target. And BINGO!
..................
0137:00439FA0  81EC64010000        SUB     ESP,00000164
0137:00439FA6  53                  PUSH    EBX
0137:00439FA7  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00439FA8  57                  PUSH    EDI
0137:00439FA9  55                  PUSH    EBP
0137:00439FAA  33FF                XOR     EDI,EDI
0137:00439FAC  FF1578174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!GetCurrentProcessId]
0137:00439FB2  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:00439FB3  57                  PUSH    EDI
0137:00439FB4  6A38                PUSH    38
0137:00439FB6  FF1530174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!OpenProcess]
0137:00439FBC  8BF0                MOV     ESI,EAX
0137:00439FBE  57                  PUSH    EDI
0137:00439FBF  8D442440            LEA     EAX,[ESP+40]
0137:00439FC3  6A40                PUSH    40
0137:00439FC5  8B8C2480010000      MOV     ECX,[ESP+00000180]
0137:00439FCC  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:00439FCD  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:00439FCE  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00439FCF  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory]
0137:00439FD5  8BAC2478010000      MOV     EBP,[ESP+00000178]
0137:00439FDC  57                  PUSH    EDI
0137:00439FDD  036C247C            ADD     EBP,[ESP+7C]
0137:00439FE1  68F8000000          PUSH    000000F8
0137:00439FE6  8D842484000000      LEA     EAX,[ESP+00000084]
0137:00439FED  33DB                XOR     EBX,EBX
0137:00439FEF  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:00439FF0  55                  PUSH    EBP
0137:00439FF1  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00439FF2  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory]
0137:00439FF8  6639BC2482000000    CMP     [ESP+00000082],DI
0137:0043A000  7641                JBE     0043A043
0137:0043A002  8D442414            LEA     EAX,[ESP+14]
0137:0043A006  6A00                PUSH    00
0137:0043A008  6A28                PUSH    28
0137:0043A00A  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A00B  8D042F              LEA     EAX,[EBP+EDI]
0137:0043A00E  05F8000000          ADD     EAX,000000F8
0137:0043A013  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A014  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:0043A015  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory]
:
:
:
0137:0043A0D4  50                  PUSH    EAX ; <== PCount = 0
0137:0043A0D5  83E103              AND     ECX,03
0137:0043A0D8  F3AA                REPZ STOSB
0137:0043A0DA  8B542420            MOV     EDX,[ESP+20]
0137:0043A0DE  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A0E3  8B4C2414            MOV     ECX,[ESP+14]
0137:0043A0E7  52                  PUSH    EDX ; <== Count = 1C4B bytes to read
0137:0043A0E8  50                  PUSH    EAX ; <= buffer in memory to save it
0137:0043A0E9  51                  PUSH    ECX ; <= address to read from = 445000h
0137:0043A0EA  56                  PUSH    ESI ; <== process ID 
0137:0043A0EB  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory];<=== !!!!!!!
0137:0043A0F1  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A0F6  83C002              ADD     EAX,02
0137:0043A0F9  A354E64400          MOV     [0044E654],EAX
0137:0043A0FE  668B10              MOV     DX,[EAX]
0137:0043A101  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A106  83C004              ADD     EAX,04
0137:0043A109  52                  PUSH    EDX
0137:0043A10A  8B542420            MOV     EDX,[ESP+20]
0137:0043A10E  A354E64400          MOV     [0044E654],EAX
0137:0043A113  668B08              MOV     CX,[EAX]
0137:0043A116  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A11B  83C006              ADD     EAX,06
0137:0043A11E  A354E64400          MOV     [0044E654],EAX
0137:0043A123  52                  PUSH    EDX
0137:0043A124  0FB7C9              MOVZX   ECX,CX
0137:0043A127  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:0043A128  E823FEFFFF          CALL    00439F50 ;checks the area at 445000h
0137:0043A12D  8B442428            MOV     EAX,[ESP+28]
0137:0043A131  83C40C              ADD     ESP,0C
0137:0043A134  83C014              ADD     EAX,14
0137:0043A137  8B0D60E64400        MOV     ECX,[0044E660]
0137:0043A13D  8B542410            MOV     EDX,[ESP+10]
0137:0043A141  6A00                PUSH    00  ; <== PCount = 0
0137:0043A143  50                  PUSH    EAX ; <== Count = 1C5F bytes to write
0137:0043A144  51                  PUSH    ECX ; <== buffer to read from
0137:0043A145  52                  PUSH    EDX ; <= address to write to = 445000
0137:0043A146  56                  PUSH    ESI ; <== process ID
0137:0043A147  FF1570174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!WriteProcessMemory]
0137:0043A14D  8B54241C            MOV     EDX,[ESP+1C]
0137:0043A151  8B3D60E64400        MOV     EDI,[0044E660]
0137:0043A157  83C214              ADD     EDX,14
0137:0043A15A  33C0                XOR     EAX,EAX
0137:0043A15C  8BCA                MOV     ECX,EDX
0137:0043A15E  C1E902              SHR     ECX,02
0137:0043A161  F3AB                REPZ STOSD
0137:0043A163  8BCA                MOV     ECX,EDX
0137:0043A165  83E103              AND     ECX,03
0137:0043A168  F3AA                REPZ STOSB
0137:0043A16A  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A16F  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A170  E8FB240000          CALL    0043C670
0137:0043A175  83C404              ADD     ESP,04
0137:0043A178  8B0D60E64400        MOV     ECX,[0044E660]
0137:0043A17E  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:0043A17F  E8EC240000          CALL    0043C670
0137:0043A184  83C404              ADD     ESP,04
0137:0043A187  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:0043A188  FF15F0174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!CloseHandle]
0137:0043A18E  8B8C247C010000      MOV     ECX,[ESP+0000017C]
0137:0043A195  8B842478010000      MOV     EAX,[ESP+00000178]
0137:0043A19C  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:0043A19D  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A19E  FF15E0A64400        CALL    [0044A6E0] ; <== this leads us right
0137:0043A1A4  83C408              ADD     ESP,08     ;     to the decoded 
0137:0043A1A7  5D                  POP     EBP        ;     protection scheme!
0137:0043A1A8  5F                  POP     EDI
0137:0043A1A9  5E                  POP     ESI
0137:0043A1AA  5B                  POP     EBX
0137:0043A1AB  81C464010000        ADD     ESP,00000164
0137:0043A1B1  C3                  RET
.....................
I think this is clear enough: The firs few Reads are dealing with the "hidden" piece of code - reading and decoding it. The culprite in this scheme is the last Read, just before the final Write: It reads from the area where the code should be placed in and stores it in a buffer in memory (see your help reference for the parameters passed to both functions). Before the Write we have at memory location 00445000 following "code salad":
...............
:00445000 AF                      scasd
:00445001 DE00                    fiadd word ptr [eax]
:00445003 00840E0F001203          add byte ptr [esi+ecx+0312000F], al
:0044500A 2415                    and al, 15
:0044500C 36                      BYTE 036h
:0044500D 27                      daa
:0044500E 3839                    cmp byte ptr [ecx], bh
:00445010 6A7B                    push 0000007B
:00445012 4C                      dec esp
:00445013 9D                      popfd
...............
But after that:
..............
0137:00445000  8B442408            MOV     EAX,[ESP+08]
0137:00445004  81EC98000000        SUB     ESP,00000098
0137:0044500A  3D10010000          CMP     EAX,00000110
0137:0044500F  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00445010  740C                JZ      0044501E
0137:00445012  3D11010000          CMP     EAX,00000111
0137:00445017  7468                JZ      00445081
0137:00445019  E9C5000000          JMP     004450E3
0137:0044501E  8BB424A0000000      MOV     ESI,[ESP+000000A0]
0137:00445025  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00445026  E8C5000000          CALL    004450F0
0137:0044502B  83C404              ADD     ESP,04
0137:0044502E  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:0044502F  FF1558194500        CALL    [USER32!SetForegroundWindow]
0137:00445035  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:00445036  FF155C194500        CALL    [USER32!BringWindowToTop]
0137:0044503C  A168E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E668]
..............
Then the call at
0137:0043A128  E823FEFFFF          CALL    00439F50
reads the data FROM THE BUFFER and checks it against patches. The same routine uses some of the values there as pointers for further reads so when you change something in the .EXE the program crashes immediately due to an ugly PF. More on, a lot of jump-tables are set among the checks there accordingly to the read piece of code, which are necessary for the proper work of the program.

Preprocessing the target

Now we have to summarize our approach: The idea is that cracking the protection itself should be rather banal and we can leave it for some later point. What we need first is to "fix" the code there and preserve it from the final Write, since it would destroy all our patches. This is a kind of "crack before the crack" which I called Precrack ;-). After that, you can analize it in a more relaxed way, maybe with your favorite cocktail in your hand...
To do this we can crack the check routine itself in order to make it set the jump tables and then bypass the WriteProcessMemory; this would probably work, but there are lots of checks, it would be the hell to trap them and we can never be sure that we have fixed them all.
It is allways better when we have to do with such complex encoding/decoding algorithms to try to fool them, making them believe that everything is OK, while our crack lurks in the background... This decreases the risk of evntl. further side effects too.
In this case I choosed following approach:
  • we paste the decoded protection functions at their "native" location - 44400h in the .EXE or 00445000h in the process image (in memory at run time)
  • we copy the original content of that same location somewhere else in the .EXE
  • we pass then a pointer to the new location to the ReadProcessMemory function; since the check routine reads from the buffer, it should work properly and set the jumps for us just as if in the normal case
  • then we bypass the WriteProcessMemory and
  • ...crack at least the "preserved" protection in some conventional way
Now lets go one after another.
First we need of course the binary image of the protection scheme. This is best done with softice - we bpx at WriteProccesMemory and right after it we issue:
d 004450000 L 1C5F
since we know that the code is already there at this point. Then GO and back in the SoftIce Loader we choose "safe history to file". The hexdump of the memory with the protection is now in some file, p.e. dump.txt by me.
Now comes right the next problem: In the dump we have something like this:
...................
:d 445000 L 1cf5
013F:00445000 8B 44 24 08 81 EC 98 00-00 00 3D 10 01 00 00 56  .D$.......=....V
013F:00445010 74 0C 3D 11 01 00 00 74-68 E9 C5 00 00 00 8B B4  t.=....th.......
013F:00445020 24 A0 00 00 00 56 E8 C5-00 00 00 83 C4 04 56 FF  $....V........V.
013F:00445030 15 58 19 45 00 56 FF 15-5C 19 45 00 A1 68 E6 44  .X.E.V..\.E..h.D
013F:00445040 00 8D 4C 24 04 50 68 00-AA 44 00 51 E8 9F 77 FF  ..L$.Ph..D.Q..w.
013F:00445050 FF 8D 4C 24 10 83 C4 0C-51 68 36 A0 00 00 56 FF  ..L$....Qh6...V.
013F:00445060 15 24 1A 45 00 A1 B0 A9-44 00 85 C0 74 75 6A 00  .$.E....D...tuj.
013F:00445070 50 6A 30 68 39 A0 00 00-56 FF 15 FC 18 45 00 EB  Pj0h9...V....E..
013F:00445080 62 66 8B 84 24 A8 00 00-00 66 3D 01 00 75 10 8B  bf..$....f=..u..
013F:00445090 B4 24 A0 00 00 00 56 FF-15 68 19 45 00 EB 44 66  .$....V..h.E..Df
..................
but this is still the ASCII representation of the memory content and we need it to be encoded back in bin format. Since no one of the HexEditors known by me offers such a feature like importing ASCII dump (or exporting its screen content to ASCII) we must help us ourself. I did it (once more!) for you this time. I modified the Skeleton program by Barry Kauler from his book Windows Assembly Language and Systems Programming (BTW a very interesting example of programing for windo$e in pure Assembly, you should study it!) by adding a menu item (Convert), a button with tooltip for it, some code to perform the convertion (Convert.asm) and named it Hexer.
When you open a file the hexer reads its content in a buffer and when you press convert it converts it from ASCII dump in binary with consecutive saving it with the extension "bin". The Hexer filters the input, thus throwing any characters that appear not to be a hex digit, otherwise it packs the consecutive hex digits pair-alike in a byte.
However you must strip both columns with the address information and the ASCII dump from your file, leaving this way only the relevant hex part in the middle; the hexer then takes care of the spaces and other non binary characters(-). You need for this a good TextEditor which allows block selecting, the TextPad from Helios is such a tool.
After doing all this you should have a file named XXX.bin which contains the whole protection scheme as it appears in the memory after the Write.
Now lets look for a place for the original code at that location - from 00445000 to 00446C60 (or 44400h to 46060h in the EXE), which, as we know is relevant for the checks before that.
With some experimenting you can see that the routine checks indeed only the non- zeroed part of it, these are 0E8Ah bytes of code - from 44400h to 4528Ah in the exe. From the bottom line in the code window in SoftIce we know that this section is called .etext and with pdump.exe we find out that it is 1E00 bytes long:
.............
  02 .etext    VirtSize: 00001C4B  VirtAddr:  00045000
    raw data offs:   00044400  raw data size: 00001E00
    relocation offs: 00000000  relocations:   00000000
    line # offs:     00000000  line #'s:      00000000
    characteristics: 60000020
      CODE  MEM_EXECUTE  MEM_READ
.............
The Virtual address above concerns the adresses in the process address space - when the program is loaded in memory (at run time), while the RAWs show the ofsets in the EXE file.
For our example we should need 1C4B+E8A=2AD5h bytes which goes beyond the .etext section's border. Right after the .etext is the data section what means that we cannot paste the E8Ah bytes content without destroying the data there.
What to do? Shold we give up?
Not at all! We must simply extend a section to the desired value.
This brings right two other problems: Which section should we extend, and how to adjust the PE header in order for the EXE to be properly loaded after that?
The .etext is the second section and there are still 5 of them, what means, when wee manipulate the size of the .etext we have to adjust all other that comes behind it which would be a hell job. So we look for the LAST section in this executable which happens to be the .reloc one:
.............
  07 .reloc    VirtSize: 0000572A  VirtAddr:  00072000
    raw data offs:   0006A800  raw data size: 00005800
    relocation offs: 00000000  relocations:   00000000
    line # offs:     00000000  line #'s:      00000000
    characteristics: 42000040
      INITIALIZED_DATA  MEM_DISCARDABLE  MEM_READ
............
As we can see it has 572A bytes initialized data (data we should NOT touch!) and is at offset 6A8000 in the file. With our piece of code the size increases to:
        572A+0E8A=65B4h
what we round up to 6600h (must be so for systems reason) for both virtual and raw size. The offset in the EXE where we should place our code is calculated so:
        6A800+572A=6FF2Ah
coze the actual data ordinals in the segment run from 0 to 5729h.
What leaves is the new virtual address that we will pass to the ReadProcessMemory function. We calculate it so:
        VirtAddr+OldVirtSize+ImageBase what means:
        72000+572A+400000=47772Ah
We proceed further so:
  • Open the Pdexplo.exe with your Hexeditor and go to location 44400h (Virt 445000)
  • Copy the content from 44400h to 4528A (E8A bytes, one less or more is not so relevant!)
  • Go to location 6FF2A (this should the .reloc section) and insert the copied bytes there; be sure to NOT only OVERWRITE the old content in the .reloc - Hedit and HexWorkShop have different behavior at this point!
  • Go back to 44400h and REPLACE the 1CF5 bytes there with our .bin file made by the Hexer
Now it is time for the second problem.
We have to adjust the size of the .reloc in order to avoid wrong file format complain by the loader and to make sure the WHOLE new segment will be loaded. For this we open the Pdexplo.exe with the Hexeditor and search for the string ".reloc". There are two occurences, the first in the header, right at the beginning of the exe, and the second where the actual segment starts. We need the first one since there the size and the offset are stored:
..............
00000260  00 00 00 40 00 00 40 2E 72 65 6C 6F 63 00 00  ....@..@.reloc..
00000270  2A 57 00 00 20 07 00 00 58 00 00 00 A8 06 00  *W... ...X......
..............
One can easely see where both - virtual and raw - data size are stored (in reverse order!): at 00000270 - Raw Size; and 00000277 - Virtual Size. So we must change them so:
..............
00000260  00 00 00 40 00 00 40 2E 72 65 6C 6F 63 00 00  
00000270  00 66 00 00 20 07 00 00 66 00 00 00 A8 06 00  
..............
I didn't adjust the data size coze it runs so, but you can do it if you have any loader problems, you can find it after the PE initials.
Now to the next problem. To make all work properly we must pass our new offset to the ReadProcessMemory. Lets look at the code there:
..............
0137:0043A0DA  8B542420            MOV     EDX,[ESP+20]
0137:0043A0DE  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A0E3  8B4C2414            MOV     ECX,[ESP+14]; <= address to read from
0137:0043A0E7  52                  PUSH    EDX 
0137:0043A0E8  50                  PUSH    EAX 
0137:0043A0E9  51                  PUSH    ECX 
0137:0043A0EA  56                  PUSH    ESI 
               = 17 bytes
0137:0043A0EB  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory]
..............
You see that the address to read from is passed via the stack. The stack points in this section of code to a region with useful system info about the exe, the hell knows how this data get there! We don't want to crack deeper so we change it to:
............
0137:0043A0DA  8B542420            MOV     EDX,[ESP+20]
0137:0043A0DE  A164E64400          MOV     EAX,[0044E664]
0137:0043A0E3  52                  PUSH    EDX ; <== Count, doesn't matter!
0137:0043A0E4  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A0E5  682A774700          PUSH    0047772A ; <=== our new location
0137:0043A0EA  56                  PUSH    ESI
               = 17 bytes!
0137:0043A0EB  FF1574174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!ReadProcessMemory]
............
and everything will be OK.
You haven't forgotten that we have to bypass the WriteProcessMemory function too, since we don't want it to overwrite our decoded protection with the future cracks there. In the original we have:
............
0137:0043A141  6A00                PUSH    00
0137:0043A143  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A144  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:0043A145  52                  PUSH    EDX
0137:0043A146  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:0043A147  FF1570174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!WriteProcessMemory]
0137:0043A14D  8B54241C            MOV     EDX,[ESP+1C]
............
which we change to:
............

0137:0043A141  EB0A                JMP     0043A14D
0137:0043A143  50                  PUSH    EAX
0137:0043A144  51                  PUSH    ECX
0137:0043A145  52                  PUSH    EDX
0137:0043A146  56                  PUSH    ESI
0137:0043A147  FF1570174500        CALL    [KERNEL32!WriteProcessMemory]
0137:0043A14D  8B54241C            MOV     EDX,[ESP+1C]
..........
So.

Cracking the target

Now you can start the modified target and if you did everything OK it should present to you its usual screen.
The part with the protection routines is at its native location - 44400h in the exe, 445000 in the Wdasm - and you can crack it as you fancy, I'm not going to do it this time for you! If you are so newbee or so lazy there is on my site the full uvpack.zip: UncleVan's X-mas pack with the listings, the dump.txt and dump.bin files, pedump.exe and "my" version of the Pdexplo.exe.
The other few exe's should v'been protected in a similar manner, you must find out this by yourself. If you find that this is not worth the effort and you still can't life without it you better go to the local airport and carry the baggage of the business class passengers for few hours, then you have the necessary money for buying it ;-)
Ob duh
I wont even bother explaining you that you should BUY this target program if you intend to use it for a longer period than the allowed one. Should you want to STEAL this software instead, you don't need to crack its protection scheme at all: you'll find it on most Warez sites, complete and already regged, farewell.
Final
Notes

Recapitulation:

Which conclusions can we make from this protection?
Well, they are getting better. This target is even harder to crack as some dongle protected ones. We still got the advantage of the assembly and cracking knowledge we obtained from our gurus, but there is only one little step remaining to the modifying "on the fly", I wonder how they didn't make it yet; and they should, if they have read thoroughly enough Reversers page... ;-) the solution is shown there months ago!
Then we will have to do with fully different protection techniques and at the end there will be really "man against man", I see glorious days coming...

That was all for now. I hope you had a nice X-mas and wish you good luck and more cracks in the

Happy New Year - 1998!
Greetings:
Thanks +ORC and all of you who emailed me!
Please send your questions/comments/offences/crack requests to me!

(c) UncleVan 1997 All rights reserved

P.S.
Hey, just read a interesting add-on to my first essay, concerning a VB5 target named Icon Edit Pro - from Squirlle (Lord, how is this spoken out?):

.........
But what is this, lo, the proggie is the right
versions, but the codes is all wrong. 
........
I've done it for first in Oct, then when I wrote the essay in mid. November and there were still the same addresses as shown in the essay. The autor hadn't at this time a www page, so we can never be sure which the actual version is. But Squirlle can post me his download ftp and I will take a look at this one.
UncleVan
Add-on
Marigold's add-on (16 January 1998)
This is the second part of a very interesting letter by Marigold. The first part deals with Timelock 3 protections and can be read
here. I received it on 16 January 1998
I confess now that the real reason to write this letter was the 
essay by Uncle Van on Mijenix's target. I love Mijenix 
protections! I cannot forget the acute pleasure their cracking 
gave me! So, it is jealousy after all... 
Uncle Van is wrong at least in one point: This program has a 
history. For +ORC student it is quite a mistake...

For me this history began with version 2.0, installed by 
Pdeval20.exe. I think this version, though obsolete, is still 
available. Its protection is as follows: application creates a 
temporary file pdthkxx.tmp, decrypts and writes into it a .dll 
code. Then it does LoadLibrary and GetProcAddress for all four 
exported functions in it. Nothing special till now... The real 
trick is that a call to one of the functions is inside the 
message loop of the application. And this function contains 
TranslateMessage and DispatchMessage, so it actually closes the 
loop (only if all checks are satisfied). What to do? Patching of 
encrypted DLL's code is unpractical, if only possible... Other 
calls to protection functions are avoidable and the only real 
problem is how to close the message loop. So, let's close it! The 
application itself does not import TranslateMessage and 
DispatchMessage; thus necessary steps include:
1 GetModuleHandle for USER32,
2 GetProcAddress for TranslateMessage and DispatchMessage,
3 Create a short function which calls them and 
4 Redirect call inside a message loop to this new function. 

PowerDesk Suit includes five executables; in all cases "gross 
weight" of patching does not exceed ~100 bytes, and we have a lot 
of space to do it as we do not need now all that protectionist’s 
junk which creates and runs temporary DLL.

A new generation of Mijenix's products (PowerDesk upgrades to 
versions 2.0x, ZipMagic 1.0 Trial) uses "improved" protection. 
Now it does not create a temporary DLL but decrypts a part of 
application code "in flight". (As rightly described in Uncle's 
Van essay.) All other features of protection preserved intact! So 
why shouldn't we use the same solution as before? The 
installation procedure for PowerDesk upgrade to version 2.0x 
checks (in its "secret" part) if the previous version is not 
trial but purchased. If so, it continues (and closes the message 
loop). So, it is all the same but easier to crack because this 
application imports TranslateMessage and DispatchMessage 
(steps 1 and 2 of above are unnecessary here). Patching 
in this case is only ~20 bytes long. It is longer for two 
ZipMagic's executables but quite similar. 

Once having been understood, Mijenix's trick does not look 
very tough either, but I would rather place it higher than 
the tricks of TimeLock 3.03.

I hope this letter will be of some interest to you. And, please, 
don't call my favorite approach "brute force". It is not brute, 
as applications work better after that... they do not need to do 
many foolish things.

     Many kisses,

      Marigold.

mari-g(at)usa(point)net
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